Tag Archives: dünyanın 7 harikası

World’s Seven Wonders

The seven wonders of the world are divided into two types today. These are the seven wonders of the world selected by UNESCO and the organization named New7Wonders in 2005 with the slogan “The world chooses the seven new wonders”.

New World Wonders were chosen as a result of a survey of 100 million people on Earth (via mobile phone and internet). But UNESCO has stated that these elected surveys were all concocted in their own country, and that they did not recognize it because the list was based  entirely on the personal opinions of the voters. Because of the survival of only the Pyramids of Keops today, the newly selected works of interest from UNESCO-selected structures were of interest, and people gave importance to the seven wonders of the newly selected Earth. Therefore we considered appropriate to describe the  seven wonders of both the old and the new world.

1 – Ancient City of Petra

History of Ancient City of Petra

The Ancient City of Petra was built by the Nebati’s tribes in 400 BC and 106 AD for the king’s graveyard to be buried after the death of their kings. There are the theater, the temple, the house and some buildings in Ancient City of Petra which means Greek Stone. The amphitheater built during the Roman period is one of the most well known structures there.

Due to its proximity to trade routes, Ancient City of Petra developed rapidly during the period of the Nabati Empire. They are formed from sandstones by the income noble people there had from trade. Thanks to these incomes, majestic constructions were made. The construction of the ancient city of Petra lasted 500 years. The place called Şehire siq goes through the valleys which are narrowed down to 1 meter. In Petra there is also an antique age dam built to meet the need for water. Siqler provides natural protection without spending. After the Nabati Empire, he was captured by the Roman Empire. Petra entering a new turn with Rome will not be able to continue its development during this period and will eventually become an abandoned city by losing its settlement due to earthquakes.

There are Amphitheater, Petra Rock Cemeteries, Royal Cemetery, Aaron (brother of Musa’s brother), Nebatiler Museum and Petra Archeology Museum built with Al Khazneh (Treasure) and Roman architectural architecture in Petra Antique City.

The cultural Ancient City of Petra was rediscovered by the Swiss traveler Johann Burckhardt in the 1800s and was added to the World Cultural Heritage list by UNESCO in 1985. In 2007 it was added to the Seven New Wonders of the World.

Movies set in Ancient City of Petra
  • Sinbad and the Eye of the Tiger (1977)
  • Terra X – Expedition ins Unbekannte (1984) TV Seri
  • Indiana Jones: Son Macera (1989)
  • Xin A Li Ba Ba (1989) yada A Li Ba Ba (1989)
  • Mortal Kombat: Annihilation (1997)
  • Çölde Tutku (1997)
  • Son of God (2001) TV Series
  • Mumya Geri Döndü, (2001)
  • Spiritual Warriors (2006)
  • Digging for the Truth (2007) TV Series
  • Lady and Her Slaves
  • Transformers: Revenge of The Fallen (2009)
Documentaries of Ancient City of Petra

The Petra’s documentary

Pictures of Ancient City of Petra

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2 – Great Wall of China

History of Great Wall of China

2In 2007, China’s Great Hall of Fame was selected as one of the seven new wonders of the world. Between 403 and 201 BC, more than 20 separate kingdoms laid the foundations. The chief of the Great Wall of China was the small borders to protect the kingdoms themselves. Qin, Zhao, and the Yan lords built the defensive walls of the Great Wall of China in order to stop the attacks of XiongNu, DongHu, LinHu, Hiung-nu and at the same time to protect the borders of the country. China’s first emperor, Qin Shi Huang, decided to build a powerful and impenetrable defense wall through this area. Historians have expressed many views on the purpose of this construction.

  • Prevention of the people’s escape from the country
  • Assurance of the administration positioned only on the hands of the imperial dynasty (one-sided administration)
  • Prevention of the country’s heavy losses by advancing or even withdrawing, reducing the war economy by the inactivation of the attacks
  • Counteraction against the attacks of the Turkish side, especially the Hun civilization tribes, who were fighting against China

Extension of  the Great Wall continued from the 3rd to the 17th of March BC. It was the Ming Dynasty, which survived between 1368 and 1644 that made possible the restoration of the collapsed or buried places during the attacks. The thickness of the Chinese Gate Wall is 4 to 6 meters and the floor thickness is 7 meters. Only when the wall is examined as a whole it can be seen that in some regions solid material is not used, the base and height change. Horses may go on thick walls, and in thick places there are visors and archer wishes. Every 200 meters there is a watch tower – a castle and a 9 meter tower of lanterns. Also on the wall there are a temple and a palace.

A large part of the wall still remaining today was built during the Ming Dynasty. The Chinese Great Wall was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1986. The total length is 8.851.8 km, according to the description of the State Cultural Heritage Administration of the People’s Republic of China and the Office of State Metering and Mapping on April 18, 2009.  Source

Movies set in  Great Wall of China
  • Chandni Chowk to China
  • Jeans
  • Myth, The
  • Karate Kid, The
Documentaries related to Great Wall of China

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Pictures of Great Wall of China

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3 – Christ the Redeemer (Cristo Redentor)


It is located on Corcovado Mountain in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, above Tijuca National Park. The rescuing Jesus statue is at the same time the symbol of Rio de Janeiro. The idea of ​​sculpture design belongs to Oswald and was made by a sculptor named Paul Landowski. On July 7, 2007, the statue was chosen as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.

History of Christ, the Redeemer

The Redeemer Jesus Statue was commemorated with the 100th anniversary of Brazil and opened with official ceremony on 12 October 1931. An average 10-minute train journey takes place to reach the sculpture 730 meters high from the ground. This 10 minute train journey takes place inside the Tijuca National Park, so there is a chance to see a lot of beautiful landscapes.

The statue, which is 30 m in height (only 3.75 m in the head region), rests on a pedestal of 8 m height. The statue is 1,145 tons in weight. The length of the opened arms of the statue is 28 meters. The head and arms of the statue were specially constructed in France. Because the statue is quite elevated from the ground, the exterior surface is protected by a special material against  The Redeemer Jesus Sculpture welcomes about 1 million tourists a year and the number of visitors in a session is nearly 150. An interesting event occurred there when an Australian fellow named Felix Baumgartner jumped with a parachute from the right arm of the statue on 1 December 1999.

Movies set in Christ, the Redeemer
  • Now, Voyager
  • Notorious
  • 2012 (film)
  • The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy
  • Romeo + Juliet
  • Viva La Bam
  • Mr. Magoo
  • Rio
  • Fast Five
  • The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn – Part 1
  • Legend of the Galactic Heroes
  • Runaway (Video klip)
  • Pam Pam (Video klip)
The scenarios and the video games based on this region
  • Tom Clancy’s H.A.W.X
  • Driver 2
  • Tropico 3
  • Terranigma
  • Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2
  • OSS 117: Lost in Rio
  • Civilization IV: Beyond the Sword
  • Civilization Revolution
  • Civilization V
  • Mass Effect 3
  • Angry Birds Rio
  • Gangstar Rio: City of Saints
Christ, the Redeemer‘s documentaries

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Christ the Redeemer Pictures


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Other statues of Jesus Christ
  • Monument to the Savior of the World , San Salvador City, El Salvador
  • Cristo Redentore, Christ the Redeemer of Maratea, Italy
  • Christ of Vung Tau in Vietnam (32 m)
  • Christ Blessing in Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (30m)
  • Cristo-Rei in Lisbon, Portugal (28 m)
  • Jesus Christ, statue, Garajau, Madeira, Portugal
  • Cristo Blanco in Cuzco, Peru
  • Cristo Rey in Cali, Colombia
  • Cristo Rei of Dili: a 27 metre high statue in Dili, Timor-Leste
  • Cerro del Cubilete in Guanajuato, Mexico: a 23 meter high statue inspired by Christ the Redeemer
  • Cristo Rey in Ejutla, Jalisco: Inspired by Rio de Janeiro’s one
  • Christ of the Ozarks in Arkansas, United States: a 20 meter high statue inspired by Christ the Redeemer
  • Christ of Havana in Havana, Cuba: a 20 metre high statue inspired by Christ the Redeemer
  • Christ the Redeemer of the Andes (Argentina/Chile)
  • Cristo de la Concordia in Cochabamba, Bolivia
  • Cristo de las Noas in Torreón, Mexico
  • Christ of the Abyss in various underwater locations
  • Christ the King (Polish: Pomnik Chrystusa Króla), 33 metres (108 ft) tall and weighing 440 tonnes.[17] in Świebodzin, Poland
  • Cristo del Pacífico, Lima, Peru, a 37 metre high statue erected in 2011.
  • List of statues by height

 

4 – Machu Picchu


It was built by the Inca who had the greatest empire before the US was discovered. It is positioned on the Urubamba valley at the peak of the Ang Mountains, which is within the borders of the Republic of Peru. The city was built by Pachacutec Yupanqui, King of the Inca Empire, between 1450 AD. Today there is still controversy as there is no scientific evidence to explain the purpose of the city. There is a farming and living area in the city. In 1532, the city was invaded by Spanish invaders, but it was not noticed by the invaders as inhabitants used to hide in the mountains. For this reason, the city has been well protected and has not been damaged. The city of Machu Picchu is made up of stone structures connected by more than 200 stair systems. Machu Picchu was chosen as one of the New Seven Wonders of the World on 7 July 2007. The city is also a sister city of  Petra.

History of Machu Picchu

The ancient city, when active, had a population over 100. This data is derived from the skeletons examined during the studies. In the same studies it was found that the city hosted more than 700 Inca’s prominent nobles and clergy. In 1912 and 1913 Bingham uncovered the city. Machu Picchu’s research books were published in 1915 and Machu Picchu became famous in April 1913 of National Geographic magazine. Machu Picchu is the most visited place of South America. There is an average of 2,000 visitors a day. After reaching the village of Aguas Calientes from Kente Cusco by rail system, it is 8 km from here. The bus route is reached at the end. As tourism sector advanced, Peru wanted to make a cable car to the city, but UNESCO opposed this cableway line, taking into account the danger of natural disruption and the danger of landslides. Additionally there are several landslides on the periphery of the city. In 2004 and 2005, 11 people lost their lives in the landslides as 400 meters of the track was under the ground.

Movies set in Machu Picchu
  • Secret of the Incas
  • The Motorcycle Diaries (Che Guevera’nın Motorbisiklet günlükleri )
  • Enthiran
  • The Strokes (video klip)
  • Monte Carlo (2011 film)
  • Beastly (film)
Documentaries about Machu Picchu

Machu Picchu’s documentaries

The pictures of Machu Picchu

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5 – The Temple of  the Warriors


The Pyramid, which is known as  Chichen Itza is positioned on Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula. It is  found in a Maya city and is considered the center of the religion of Yucatan. It carries all the architectural and cultural characteristics of Mayans. The reason Mayans built this pyramid to carry out a systematic study with astronomy and mathematics. The pyramid built before Christopher Columbus, is today the second most visited archaeological site in Mexico.

Characteristics of pyramid

  • Elevation from the ground  :  24 m
  • Square size :  55.3 m
  • Temple height at the top of the pyramid : 6 m
The characteristics of the city where the pyramid is found

The Mayans believed that their gods were in the stars and in the sky. For this reason they thought studying the sky from a high hill would be more useful in order to get closer to God. One of the most interesting features of pyramid is that it is able to explain the meaning of the year system we are currently using. There are 91 digits in each of the 4 ceilings. 91 × ​​4 = 364, which means that when we add +1 in the top level, we will find 365 days. Another interesting aspect of pyramid is the two-headed snake living only in spring and autumn. In the spring and autumn, the lights from the sun and the pyramid stairs form the S-letter with each other and the two-headed snakes (Kukulkan feathered snakes). The characteristic of this snake is that it can take form of the orbit of the body’s celestial bodies.

The Mayans also made the pyramid in 9 different levels. This level gives the number of underground floors in the Mayan religion. When you look over the pyramid of Maya you have a view of 300 hectares therefore allowing you to see all the buildings in the city.

Movies set in Chichen Itza
  • The Holy Mountain (1973)
  • An Idiot Abroad (2010 TV Series) (1984)
  • Against All OddsKings of the Sun (1963)
  • Breaking the Maya Code (2008 Belgesel)
  • Mayan Revelations & Hollywood Lies (Belgesel)
  • Mystery of the Maya (1995 Belgesel)
  • Sonic Adventure (1998 Video Game)
  • Interval (1973)
  • Tekuani, the Guardian (2013)
  • Mayan Doomsday Prophecy (2006 Belgesel)
Documentaries set in Chichen Itza

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Pictures of Chichen Itza

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6 – Colosseum (Il Colosseo)


The capital of Italy is the Amphitheater, arena of the gladiator fights and amphitheater Flavianus, which was built during the period of the building flavium civilization, to amuse the Roman people in Rome. The real name of the coliseum is Arena, but it is called the name of the sculpture at the entrance of the latter. Today the earthquake has been damaged and stones have been stolen.

History of Colosseum

The construction of the Arena was started by the master commander Vespasian in 72 BC and completed in 152 AD after 80 years. Recent changes to the Arena were completed during the Titus period under Domitian rule. Imitative naval battles, theater, public wars, demonstrations, animal hunts, executions, mythological events and special occasions were performed in the arena.

The Colosseum was later used for various purposes such as marriage, workshops, religious barracks, employment, stone quarry and Christian tomb. The Arena was considered the symbol of the Roman Empire and has become one of the most preferred  tourist attractions in Rome.

The movies set in Colosseum
  • Roman Holiday
  • Demetrius and the Gladiators
  • 20 Million Miles to Earth
  • Way of the Dragon
  • Gladiator (2000 film)
  • The Core
  • Madagascar 3: Europe’s Most Wanted
  • Assassin’s Creed: Brotherhood (Bilgisayar oyunu)
The documentaries about Colosseum

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Kolezyum Resimleri

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7 – The Taj Mahal


It was built by Shah Jihan, the sovereign of Shah-i Cihan (the Shah of the Earth), the 6th ruler of the Babur Empire, which ruled 332 years in India. In the period of the Babür Empire, Shah Cihan died during the birth of his 14th child (Mumtaz Mahal (Ercümend Banu Begüm)). After this death he gave himself to the architecture and laid the foundation of the Taj Mahal in 1632 in memoir of his wife. The architectural work is called the greatest and most beautiful monument about love. The river is located on the banks of the Yamuna River in Agra, India.

Taj Mahal attracts most of the tourists coming in India and is one of the most important works made during Turkish-Islamic Architecture. The Taj Mahal can be seen at many points in Agra (the city where the Taj Mahal is located). Because of the presence of the suburbs and distorted buildings, Taj Mahal is considered to be in danger.

The architecture of Taj Mahal

20 thousand workers and several masters worked in the construction of the monument.The tomb was completed in 1643 and ended in 1649. Taj Mahal was completed in 1642, lasting 20 years. During the construction of the Taj Mahal, white marbles with bright and blue veins were used. Because of this feature, it seems brighter than the moon even in moonlight nights. The dome, which is 82 meters in height from the same marble type, was built in 1648 by architect Ismail Efendi. On the dome, there is a god’s statue made of gold. There are 4 minarets of the Taj Mahal. The entire period of Yasin was written by Hattat Serdar Efendi on all sides of the architectural work. The dimensions of the Taj Mahal are  of 305 X 580 (width x height). The door’s height of the Taj Mahal is 33 meters and it is 75 meters high with the dome. The interior part has a dead volume of 30 meters high between the lower dome cover and the upper one.

The chairs of Shah Jihan and his wife are on the top floor, just below the dome. Near sandukas every voice that comes out of a person has the ability to echo 7 times more. The original marbles of the king and his wife are on the lowest floor. On the walls of Taj Mahal, hundreds of thousands of agates, mother-of-pearl and illusions are buried. Also in the walls of Taj Mahal there are 42 emeralds, 142 rubies, 625 diamonds and 50 very large pearls. Taj Mahal which succeeded in fostering everything related to the romance and establishment has become a source of inspiration for many eastern and western writers and poets. Since 1983, Taj Mahal has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The legends about Taj Mahal

One of the most famous myths about the Taj Mahal is that the arms of the workers were cut off so that they could never do more similar tombs. In addition, according to another legend, the scaffold was made to support the dome.

It is supposed that it requires more cost and working power than the dome. When Shah Jihan learned from the workers that it would take 5 years to dismantle the scaffolding, Shah Jihan told that anyone dismantling a piece from the pier could take that piece in his house, the dismantling of the scaffolding was finished that night.

The films related to Taj Mahal

taj_mahal_filmi

  • Taj Mahal (2010)
  • Taj Mahal: An Eternal Love Story
  • Taj Mahal (1999 film)
  • Taj Mahal (1963 film)
  • Taj Mahal (Game)
  • Taj Mahal (Music Album)
The Taj Mahali’s documentaries

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The Taj Mahali’s pictures

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Seven World Wonders according to UNESCO (old-classic)

1 – The Great Pyramid of Giza


This ancient tomb is located in the capital city of Egypt, Cairo. It is the oldest and the largest of the three monumental pyramids that have become the symbol of Egypt. The Egyptian pharaoh, Khufu is believed to have built it as a monumental tomb in honor of himself. It is believed that the pyramids were built between 2551 and 2560 BC and lasted for 20 years. This determination was calculated by dividing 5.9 million tons (total pyramid’s weight) by 800 tons of stone per day(the weight thought to be transported each day). The pyramid was regarded as the largest man-made structure in the world in terms of volume and mass ratio over 3800 years and its altitude record was not broken for 4000 years. It is the only work of the list of UNESCO’s seven wonders of the Earth which has survived and can be seen by naked eye.The Egyptian Pyramid is also the only stone statue remaining from the Old Imperial period of Egypt. Pyramid lost some of its covering stones due to the great earthquake that took place in 1300 years(M.S)and the falling stones were used by Bahri Sultan-Nasir al-Hasan to build castles and mosques near Cairo in 1356 . The fact it has been able to resist the effects of natural disasters for 4000 year has made all experts agree that this pyramid’s construction is both architecturally and physically perfect. The reason why the secrets of pyramid have not been explained is because Khufu (the king who made the pyramid) killed all workers in order to avoid making a similar pyramid. There are still studies related to those secrets. Tourists can only climb to a certain extent as the total climbing was forbidden in 1980.

The outside part of the Great Pyramid of Giza was originally covered with stone plates. Today, only a small part of these coverage are found only on the upper part of the pyramid.

How was The Great Pyramid of Giza done?

There are many opinions about the construction of pyramid. Among these views, the most supported one states that the stones had been moved building technique is the movement and alignment of stones in blocks from a spiral. If we tried to explain with pictures:

keops_piramidi_nasil_yapildi

As it is seen in the picture, only the ground and the ramp have been prepared in the first 5 years and in the following years this ramp was not removed until the spiral loop was completely finished on the pyramid.

A second question arises.How were those stones each of an average of 2.5 tons removed? One of the most prominent views on how those stones were removed from these ramps is illustrated in the picture below. It should not be forgotten that the levers shown in the figure have giant dimensions according to the theory. At the same time,it is noteworthy that two groups of 100.00 thousand people (200.000 workers-slaves divided by mastery grades) have been working without interruption in order to remove these stone blocks from the stones.

keops_piramidi_nasil_yapildi_2

One of the alternatives presented as an additional alternative to this view is that they may have put mud under the stones in order to remove the block of stones from the ramp.

Inside the Great Pyramid of Giza

There were 3 rooms in the great pyramid. It is believed that the rooms at the bottom of these rooms, which are determined by special technological devices, could not be finished by specialists. The pyramid was built by engraving the base rock during construction. The latter room was served as the room of the king and the queen.The Great Pyramid of Giza consists of two temples connected by the roads and around the pyramid are small graves called mastaba. These graves are part of the pyramid-forming structure.

The Egyptologists believe that the first room was chosen as burial place of  Pharaoh Khufu ,but probably Khufu had changed his mind and made his room higher. According to another theory, the death of Pharaoh was extended by 5 years and during that time the room was being built.

The architecture of the Great Pyramid of Giza

The Pyramids of Egypt were built from 280 cubic stones each of height of 138 meters. When these ratios are calculated together, the original height of the pyramid of Egypt is calculated to have  been 146.478 meters. The current height is 138.75 meters. This difference in height has been probably caused because of erosion and other environmental conditions. Each of the cubic base dimensions are 440 meters, 230.37 meters and 230.37 meters long. The weight of the Pyramid of Keops is 5.9 million tons. The volume of pyramid is 2.500.00 m3.

The first measurements of pyramid were made by Sir Flinders Petrie between 1880 and 18882. In the publishment “The Great Pyramid of Giza and Temples”, the aperture between the Northeast stones is stated to be 0.5. The four sides of the pyramid bases are spaced 58 mm apart from each other. It seems that they are so equal to each other that this difference is ignored. The ratio between the highest and lowest points from the table  is 21 mm when the highest and lowest points on the table are compared. This rate is ignored and the base level is accepted. The base has 12 angular second error shares. Ignoring this ratio, the base is considered a perfect square.The Egyptian mathematics geniuses used the number pi in several ratios. Additionally, the dimensions of the chamber of Pharaoh Khufu equal those of two Pythagorean triangles. However, the Pythagorean Theorem would be discovered thousands of years later than the pyramid was built. Several architects studied the pyramid’s different surface ratios and length ratios and have determined it to be perfect apart from the slight errors.

During the pyramid construction, the outer sloped part was covered with polished white limestone. The surface of the building has been carefully cut to avoid any inclination problem and several stone block are placed there.

 

The Gate of the Pyramid

The map of pyramid and its gate

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Only 100 tourists per day can enter the pyramid. Additionally Zahi Hawass, General Secretary of the Supreme Court of Egypt, banned the act of taking pictures inside pyramid.
After the entrance gate, a 300 meters long and thin road starts. There is another long and thin road descending down the road. This road is not complete. However, there is another way to reach the room from the Southern part.

In May 1954, the Egyptian archaeologist discovered a trench under the stone plates weighing 15 tons. 1224 pieces of wood were found inside it . Hadj Ahmed Joseph worked for 14 years to w to bring the wooden pieces together. It was argued that these wooden pieces constituted a ship and that large pieces of stone were transported from the Nile River with this ship. In addition, its waterproof capacity is still a mystery.

The movies set in the Pyramid
  • Pyramid (2002) (TV Dizisi)
  • Pyramid (2002)
The documentaries about the Great Pyramid of Giza

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The pictures of the Great Pyramid of Giza

 Click to see the pictures of the Great Pyramid of Giza

2 – Hanging Gardens of Babylon


Hanging Gardens of Babylon (50 km south of Baghdad in Iraq) were built by King of Babylon II, Nebuchadnezzar who wanted  to cheer his wife longing for her country. The structure was built about 2800 years ago and after the occupation of Babylon by Kaykushraw of Persia ,the city was buried among the sand and only the remains of the excavations could be removed at the 20th century.

The story of Hanging Gardens of Babylon

King of Babylon II. Nebuchadnezzar’s wife Amyitis was the daughter of the king of Media. Media was greener, more rugged and mountainous than Babylon. Amytis, which enabled these two countries to become allied, was not accustomed to her new country because Mesopotamia was so different from Media. Nebuchadnezzar decided to build large terraces and hanging gardens in order to create a similar place to his wife’s homeland.

The architecture of Hanging Gardens of Babylon

According to the research conducted by the Greek geographer Strabo, Hanging Gardens consist of cubic pillars rising on top of each other. These cubic apartments were built with large pits and filled with soil so that plants and hangers could grow. The watering system was so effective that even the plants on the upper parts could be irrigated by the water coming on the chain pumps placed near the Nile River.

The documentaries of Hanging Gardens of Babylon

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The pictures of Hanging Gardens of Babylon

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3 –Temple of Artemis (Artemisium)


The temple, also called Diana temple, has been dedicated by the Lydian King Croesus to the God of Artemis (Moon Goddess). The project lasted 120 years. It was entirely of marble and it was finished  550 years BC. Today, only two pieces of marbles are left in the Temple of Artemis. Artemis (located in my country,Turkey) is located in Selçuk,Izmir.

Cybele, the main goddess of Anatolia, turns into Artemis after various phases. This reason is also among the main reasons why this temple was built in Izmir. Unlike the Greek gods, Artemis, possessing 37 breasts and tangled snakes is more similar to Egyptian and Anatolian gods. Ephesus, located in a vibrant area  and serving as a commercial district has probably be affected by other cultures therefore leading to this metamorphosis of the goddess.

The architecture of Temple of Artemis

The temple consists of 127 columns of ionic style. Each of the columns is 18 meters. The temple is 115 meters long and 55 meters wide.

It is accepted that the Temple of Artemis is built during 3 different phases. The first phase was made in the 7th century BC. In the first phase, only the places where religious ceremonies and sacred occasions were going to take place were built. In the second phase, the temple itself was built over the religious ceremony  constructed in the first phase. On the third phase only the restoration after the fire was done.

The documentaries of Temple of Artemis

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The pictures of Temple of Artemis

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4 –Statue of Zeus


The Zeus sculpture was first made in the ancient city of Olympos in Greece by the famous sculptor Phidias (sculptor of the Athena sculpture) 450 years BC. As the name also suggests, this sculpture was made in honor of Zeus.  The sculpture was made by placing gold and pieces of ivory metal n a sculpted wooden skeleton. Temple of Zeus was closed by Theodosius in 391 in the same time Olympic games were viewed as idolatry. The sculpture later was moved to Constantinople by the time several rich Greeks lived there. The statue disappeared during the great fire that took place in 462.

The reason why the ivory was to shine the dark corridor that visitors had to pass through to see the statue. The statue is 12 m high and optimally built according to the temple’s dimensions. The statue, which is considerably larger than the size of the temple, holds Nike, the Victory Goddess, in the right hand. In the left side of the statue there is a ruler made of a variety of metals with an eagle on the top.

The documentaries about Statue of Zeus

Zeus Heykeli Belgeselleri

The pictures of Statue of Zeus

Zeus Heykelleri resimlerini görmek için tıklayın.

5 – Colossus of Rhodes


It was created in Rhodes as the name suggests too. The statue was positioned at the entrance of the city near the port of Rhodes. The people of Rhodes, who won a war during that time decided to do this sculpture as a gift to gods. The statue is a god of  Sun (a Greek god) and was made by the sculptor Chares of Lindos between 305 and 304 years BC.

The statue was at a height of 32 meters and was made of bronze. It was destroyed about 125 years after being built because of an earthquake.

The documentaries about Colossus of Rhodes

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The pictures of Colossus of Rhodes

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6 – Lighthouse of Alexandria ( Pharos Lighthouse )


It is one of the old Seven Wonders of the World  built in the city of Egypt, Alexandria. Although it was built in 285-246 BC, it is among the highest built lighthouses ever. The Alexandria Lighthouse, built on the port of the island of Pharos consisted of three parts. It  was 135 meters high and made of white marble. It could be seen from a distance of 70 kilometers.

The bronze mirror located at the top enabled the ships to easily reach the port. A 27 meters cylindrical shape was located at the center and was used as an underlying part about the other parts. The lower part is rectangular and 55 meters high. An earthquake and various storms in 955 AD caused its partial destruction and the lighthouse was completely destroyed because of another earthquake in 1302.

The documentaries about Lighthouse of Alexandria

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İskenderiye Feneri Resimleri

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7 – Mausoleum at Halicarnassus


Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, also known as the Grave of King Mausolus, was built under the rule of King Mausolus’ s daughter and sister during 353-340 AD. The tomb was located in the ancient city of Halicarnassus (ancient city of Muğla / Bodrum). In 1402, the knights of Jean Baptiste de La salle came to Bodrum and used the monument as a quarry. They later removed the memorial monument and made the Bodrum Castle.

The columns of the grave consisting of a pyramid shaped roof  remind of Ancient Greek Era’s architecture. Due to the size and style of this grave it is called mausoleum (Monumental Tomb). The area where the Memorial Tomb is located is used now as an open air museum. There is a house on the right house of this museum and on the left side the pieces belonging to the Mausoleum  (Monument tomb) can be seen.

The region where the Monument Tomb is located looks like a pit. There are stairways carved into the bedrock of the southern pit. It is stated that another monumental grave is found in the lower part of these stairs. During the construction of the monument, this area was kept covered. The importance and the meaning of this pit is explained during visit sessions in the closed exhibition hall. The height of the Halicarnassus mausoleum, whose base measures are 32 x 38 meters, is estimated to be 55 meters (the height of an apartment with an average twenty floors). According to the research studies the Mausoleum consist of four parts. The king’s grave is considered as the lowest part of the pyramid. The part over it resembles a high podium and it has nine stairways each of eleven stairs. The third part has a structure consisting of 36 columns. On the upper side a pyramid of 24 levels is found. The pyramid consists of the sculptures and the the belongings of the queen and the king that were transported there by a four horse cart. The construction of the statue was done by the most famous Greek sculptors of that time,such as Pytheos and Satyros (4.th century BC). Scopas worked on the east side, Leochares was responsible for the west, Bryaksis about  the north, and Timotheos about the last part. Bryaksis was a Carian artist and other artists were brought from Greece.

The research revealed that Bishop Eustathius was one of those who saw the monument in the 12th century. This proves that the monument survived for a period of 1500 years. An earthquake during those years destroyed the monument and after 300 years, the knights of Jean Baptiste de La salle found the remain of the building. Initially they used the monument as a stone quarry. Later they demolished the monuments and used the stones to strengthen the castle they built there. Since the knights could not find the grave chamber which was at the deepest of the pit, a few sculptures have not been destroyed during that period. In the next day when the Saint Jean Knights found the 12-step staircase and later they would passionately describe how they watched the dismantling of the memorial and the precious fabrics, gold and jewelry they took from that place.

A two-ton rectangular block is at the entrance of the grave chamber . One of these blocks can be seen from the hall. The British researcher Newton  took parts of the carved four-horse cart, found during excavations between 1856 and 1857 and they are today found in the British Museum in London. In 1846, Abdülmecit sent the remnants of the memorial found on the Bodrum Castle to London. Only the castle’s remnants are still in Bodrum, Turkey.

Construction of the tomb room was made on the main rock, which was soft and could be easily carved. Bones of bulls, sheep, goats, roosters and does were found at the bottom of the stairs during the excavations made by Danish archaeologists. These animals were sacrificed during the ceremony where  the king was placed on the tomb. On the right side of the east garden wall, the wall surrounding the sacred area of ​​the tomb monument appears. The museum consists of half open and closed sections. In the closed section there are various topographical models and city maps of the Mausoleum.

The documentaries about Mausoleum at Halicarnassus

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